Statement of Ethical Practice for Use of Research Findings

The purpose of research efforts of the Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare Center and its research scientists is three fold:

  1. To conduct multiple ongoing research projects on OBH issues.
  2. To increase accessibility to wilderness & adventure therapy research, and
  3. To inform the public and professionals outside of the field of OBH on the true value of wilderness and adventure therapy.

It is critical that any research and evaluation reported on this website and subsequent publications involve ONLY those OBH and/or Adventure Therapy programs mentioned in each study.  In no way do the results reported in any study make claim to the effectiveness of these interventions beyond the scope of each study, the study program participants, and the findings reported herein.


  • View publications by OBH Center Research Scientists.
  • Publications on this page are grouped together by topic starting with the most recently published manuscripts. To access the abstracts, please click on the links provided after each reference.

 Overviews of OBH & Adventure Therapy

Alvarez, T.G., Stauffer, G., Lung, D.M, Sacksteder, K., Beale, B., & Tucker, A.R. (2021). Adventure Group Psychotherapy: An Experiential Approach to Treatment. Routledge.

Gass, M.A., Gillis, H.L. (Lee), & Russell, K.C. (2020). Adventure therapy: Theory, research, and practice (2nd ed.). Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.

Tucker, A.R., Norton, C.N., Stifler, J., Gass, M., & Bostick, K. (2020). Best practices for working with transgender clients in Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare. Journal of Therapeutic Schools and Programs, 7, 53- 69.

Harper, N. J., Gabrielsen, L. E., & Carpenter, C. (2018). A cross-cultural exploration of ‘wild’ in wilderness therapy: Canada, Norway and Australia. Journal of Adventure Education & Outdoor Learning, 18(2), 148-164.

Dobud, W. W. (2017). Towards an evidence-informed adventure therapy. Journal of Evidence-Informed Social Work, 14(3), 172-182.

Norton, C.L., & Peyton, J. (2017). Mindfulness-based practice in Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare. Journal of Therapeutic Schools and Programs, 9(1), 7-20.

Russell, K., & Gillis, H. L. (2017). The Adventure Therapy Experience Scale: The psychometric properties of a scale to measure the unique factors moderating an adventure therapy experience. Journal of Experiential Education, 40(2), 135-152.

Bettmann, J. E., Gillis, H. L., Speelman, E. A., Parry, K. J., & Case, J. M. (2016). A Meta-analysis of Wilderness Therapy Outcomes for private pay clients. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25(9), 2659-2673.

Becker, S., & Russell, K. C. (2016).  Wilderness therapy for adolescents. In, R. J. R. Levesque (Ed.), Encyclopedia of adolescence (2nd ed.). Springer Books. 

Chang, T., Tucker, A., Javorski, S., Gass, M., & Norton, C. (2016). Cultural issues in adventure programming: Applying Hofstede’s five dimensions to assessment and practice. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning. 17(4), 307-320.

Gillis Jr, H. L., Speelman, E., Linville, N., Bailey, E., Kalle, A., Oglesbee, N., Sandlin, J., Thompson, L., & Jensen, J. (2016). Meta-analysis of treatment outcomes measured by the Y-OQ and Y-OQ-SR: Comparing wilderness and non-wilderness treatment programs. Child & Youth Care Forum. Advance online publication.

Tucker, A., Norton, C., Itin, C., Hobson, J., & Alvarez, M.A. (2016). Adventure therapy: Non deliberative group therapy in action, Social Work with Groups, 39(2-3), 194-207.

Gass, M., Tucker, A. R., & Karoff, M. (2015). 1999: History of the Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare Research Cooperative (OBHRC). In W. White (Ed.), Stories from the field: A history of wilderness therapy (pp. 119-126).  Wilderness Publishers.

Norton, C.L., Carpenter, C. & Pryor, A. (2015). Adventure therapy around the globe: International perspectives and diverse approaches. Common Ground Publishing.

Bettmann, J., Tucker, A., Tracy, J., & Parry, K. (2014). An exploration of gender, client history and functioning in wilderness therapy participants. Residential Treatment for Children and Youth, 31(3), 155-170.

Gillis, H.L., Gass, M.A., & Russell, K.C. (2014). Adventure therapy with groups. In J. DeLucia Waack, C. Kalodner, & M. Riva (Eds), The Handbook of Group Counseling and Psychotherapy (2nd Ed.)(pp. 560-570). Sage Publications.

Norton, C.L., Tucker, A., Russell, K., Bettmann, J., Gass, M., Gillis, L, & Behrens, E. (2014). Adventure therapy with youth. Journal of Experiential Education, 37(1), 46 - 59.

Bowen, D., & Neill, J. (2013). A meta-analysis of adventure therapy outcomes and moderators. The Open Psychology Journal,  6, 28- 53.

Norton, C.L. (2013). Creating group norms around the campfire: Adventure based group work with adolescents. In L. Grobman & J. Clements (Eds.), Riding the mutual aid bus and other adventures in group work: A Days in the Lives of Social Workers collection. The New Social Worker.

Bettmann, J.E., Lundahl, B.W., Wright, R.A., Jasperson, R.A., & McRoberts, C. (2011). Who are they? A descriptive study of adolescents in wilderness and residential programs. Residential Treatment for Children and Youth, 28 (3), 198-210.

Norton, C.L. (2011). Wilderness therapy: Creating a context of hope.  In C.L. Norton (Ed.), Innovative interventions in child and adolescent mental health (pp. 66-140). New York: Routledge.

Tucker, A. R. (2009). Adventure-based group therapy to promote social skills in adolescents. Social Work with Groups, 32(4), 315-329.

Russell, K. C., Gillis, H. L., & Lewis, T. G. (2008). A five-year follow-up of a nationwide survey of outdoor behavioral healthcare programs. Journal of Experiential Education, 31, 55-77.

Russell, K. C. (2006). Brat camps, boot camps, or….? Exploring wilderness therapy program theory. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 6, 51-67.

Russell, K. C. (2003). A nation-wide survey of outdoor behavioral healthcare programs for adolescents with problem behaviors. Journal of Experiential Education, 25, 322-331.

Russell, K. C. (2000). Exploring how the wilderness therapy process relates to outcomes. Journal of Experiential Education, 23, 170-176.

Russell, K. C. (2001). What is wilderness therapy? Journal of Experiential Education, 24, 70- 79.

OBH’s Impact on Mental Health in Youth

Bettmann, J.E., Kouris, G.M., Anderson, I.M., & Cassleman, B. (2021). Wilderness as healing environment: Treating adolescent substance misuse in wilderness therapy. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 74(1), 249-264.

Gass, M. A.; Wilson, T.; Talbot, B.; Tucker, A.R..; Ugianskis, M.; & Brennan, N. (2019). The value of outdoor behavioral healthcare for adolescent substance users with comorbid conditions. Journal of Substance Abuse: Treatment and Research, 13, 1-8.

DeMille, S., Tucker, A., Gass, M., Javorski, S., VanKanegan, C., Talbot, B., & Karoff, M. (2018). The effectiveness of Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare with struggling adolescents: A comparison group study. Child and Youth Service Review, 88, 241-248.

Russell, K.C, Gillis, H. L. & Harvey, J. D. (2018). An evaluation of Alaska Crossings: Comparison of the client status review and the Youth Outcome Questionnaire.  Journal of Therapeutic Schools and Programs, 10(1), 127-154.

Russell, K., Gillis, H.L., Law, L., & Couillard, J. (2018). A pilot study examining outcomes associated with the implementation of progress monitoring at a substance use disorder treatment program for adolescents. Child and Youth Care Forum, 47(3), 403-419.

Karoff, M., Tucker, A.T., Alvarez, M.A., & Kovacs, P. (2017). Infusing a peer to peer support program with adventure therapy for adolescent students with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal for Experiential Education, 40(4), 394-408.

Dobud, W. W. (2016). Exploring adventure therapy as an early intervention for struggling adolescents. Journal of Outdoor and Environmental Education, 19(1), 33-41.

Gabrielsen, L. E., & Harper, N. J. (2017). The role of wilderness therapy for adolescents in the face of global trends of urbanization and technification. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 1-13.

Combs, K. M. (2016). What does it take to get post-discharge data? Journal of Therapeutic Schools and Programs, 8(1), 18-23. 

Combs, K. M., Hoag, M., Javorski, S., & Roberts, S. (2016). Adolescent self-assessment of an Outdoor Behavioral Health program: longitudinal outcomes and trajectories of change. Journal of Child and Family Studies.

Hoag, M. J., Combs, K. M., & Roberts, S. D. (2016). Pushing beyond outcome: What else changes in wilderness therapy? Journal of Therapeutic Schools and Programs, 8(1), 45-56.

Massey, K., Hoag, M., Roberts, S., & Javorski, S. (2016). A multilevel model to examine adolescent outcomes in Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare: The parent perspective. Child and Youth Care Forum, 45, 353- 365.

Roberts, S., Stroud, D., Hoag, M. J., & Combs, K. M. (2016). Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare: Client and Treatment Characteristics Effects on Young Adult Outcomes. Journal of Experiential Education , 39(3), 288-302

Bettmann, J., Clarkson Freeman, P., & Parry, K., (2015). Differences between adopted and non-adopted adolescents in wilderness and residential treatment. The Journal of Experiential Education, 38, 245-261.

DeMille, S. M. & Burdict, M. (2015). A theoretically anchored and multi-modal treatment approach in an Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare program. Journal of Therapeutic Schools and Programs, 7, 19-30.

Tucker, A., Smith, A., & Gass, M. (2014). The impact of presenting problems and individual client characteristics on treatment outcomes in residential and wilderness treatment programs. Residential Treatment for Children and Youth, 31(2), 135-153.

Lewis, S. F. (2013). Examining changes in substance use and conduct problems among treatmentseeking adolescents. Child and  Adolescent Mental Health, 18(1), 33-38.

Zelov, R., Tucker, A. R., & Javorksi, S. (2013). A new phase for the NATSAP PRN: Post-discharge reporting and transition to the network wide utilization of the Y-OQ 2.0. Journal of Therapeutic Schools & Programs, 6(1), 7-19.

Bettmann, J.E., Russell, K.C., & Parry, K.J. (2012). How substance abuse recovery skills, readiness to change and symptom reduction impact change processes in wilderness therapy participants. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 22(8), 1039-1050.

Magle-Haberek, N., Tucker, A., & Gass, M. (2012). The effects of program differences within wilderness therapy and residential treatment center (RTC) programs. Residential Treatment for Children and Youth, 29(3), 202-218.

Norton, C.L. (2010). Into the wilderness—A case study: The psychodynamics of adolescent depression and the need for a holistic intervention. Clinical Social Work Journal, 38(2), 226-235.

Norton, C.L. (2010). Exploring the process of a therapeutic wilderness experience: Key therapeutic components in the treatment of adolescent depression and psychosocial development. Journal of Therapeutic School and Program, 4(1), 24-46.

Norton, C.L. (2008). Understanding the impact of wilderness therapy on adolescent depression and psychosocial development. Illinois Child Welfare, 4(1), 166-178.

White, D. D., Caulkins, M., & Russell, K. C. (2006). The role of physical exercise in wilderness therapy for troubled adolescent women. Journal of Experiential Education, 29, 18-37.

Russell, K. C. (2005). Two years later: A qualitative assessment of youth-well-being and the role of aftercare in outdoor behavioral healthcare treatment. Child and Youth Care Forum, 34, 209-239.

Russell, K. C. (2005). Preliminary results of a study examining the effects of outdoor behavioral healthcare treatment on levels of depression and substance use frequency. Journal of Experiential Education, 27, 305-307.

Russell, K. C. & Sibthorp, J. (2004). Hierarchical linear modeling of treatment outcomes in outdoor behavioral healthcare. Journal of Experiential Education, 27, 176-191.

Russell, K. C. & Farnum, J. (2004). A concurrent model of the wilderness therapy process. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 4, 39-55.

Russell, K. C. (2003). Assessing treatment outcomes in outdoor behavioral healthcare using the Youth Outcome Questionnaire. Child and Youth Care Forum. 32, 355-381.

Russell, K. C. (2002). Does outdoor behavioral healthcare work? A review of studies on the effectiveness of OBH as an intervention and treatment. Journal of Therapeutic Camping, Summer/Fall, 2, 5-12.

Russell, K. C., & Phillips-Miller, D. (2002). Perspectives on the wilderness therapy process and its relation to outcome. Child and Youth Care Forum, 31, 415-437.

OBH’s Impact on Mental Health in Young Adults

Russell, K. C., Gillis, H. L., & Hayes, M. (2020). Adventure therapy treatment for young adult males struggling with addictions. Journal of Health Service Psychology, 46(1), 13-20.

Gillis, H.L., Russell, K.C., Mandas, P., Argo, K., Rose, H., Zelenik, T. et al. (2019). Differences between opioid and non-opioid users during and after outdoor behavioral treatment.  Journal of Therapeutic Schools and Programs, 11, 105-119.

Chapman, J., Groark, S., Beale, M.M., Mandas, P., Argos, K., & Gillis, H.L. (2018). The relationship between self-reported prior drug use and treatment effectiveness in substance use disorder during outdoor behavioral healthcare treatment for young adult males. Journal of Therapeutic Schools and Programs, 10, 92-105. 

Curtis, A., Briggs, J., & Behrens, E. (2018).  Young adults in residential treatment and outdoor behavioral health programs: Preliminary outcomes from the Practice Research Network of the National Association of Therapeutic Schools and Programs.  Journal of Therapeutic Schools and Programs, 10, 65-91.

Bettmann, J.E., Tucker, A., Behrens, E., & Vanderloo, M. (2017). Changes in older adolescents and young adults’ attachment, separation, and mental health during wilderness therapy. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 26(2), 511-522.

Roberts, S., Stroud, D., Hoag, M. J., & Massey, K. (2017). Outdoor behavioral healthcare: A longitudinal assessment of young adult outcomes. Journal of Counseling and Development, 95, 45-55.

Russell, K. C., Gillis, H. L., & Heppner, W. (2016). An examination of mindfulness-based Experiences through adventure in substance use disorder treatment for young adult males: A Pilot Study. Mindfulness, 7, 320-328.

Hoag, M. J., Massey, K. M., Roberts, S., (2014). Dissecting the wilderness therapy client: Examining clinical trends, findings, and industry patterns. Journal of Experiential Education, 37(4), 382-396.

Hoag, M. J., Massey, K. E.,  Roberts, S. D., & Logan, P. (2013). Efficacy of wilderness therapy for young adults: A first look. Journal of Residential Treatment for Children and Youth, 30, 294-305.

Attachment and OBH

Bettmann, J.E, Olson-Morrison, D., & Jasperson, R.A.  (2011). Adolescents in wilderness treatment: A qualitative study of attachment relationships. Journal of Experiential Education, 34 (2), 176-194.

Bettmann, J., & Tucker, A. (2011). Shifts in attachment relationships: A study of adolescents in wilderness treatment. Child and Youth Care Forum, 40(6), 499-519.

Bettmann, J.E, Demong, E., & Jasperson, R.A.  (2008). Treating adolescents with attachment and adoption issues in wilderness therapy settings.  Journal of Therapeutic Schools and Programs, 8(1), 117-138. 

Bettmann, J.E., & Jasperson, R.A. (2008).  Adults in wilderness treatment: A unique application of attachment theory and research.  Clinical Social Work Journal, 36 (1), 51-61.

Bettmann, J.E.  (2007). Changes in adolescent attachment relationships as a response to wilderness treatment.  Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 55 (1), 259-265.

OBH’s Impact on Physical Health

Lim, C., Donovan, A. M., Harper, N. J., & Naylor, P. J. (2017). Nature elements and fundamental motor skill development opportunities at five elementary school districts in British Columbia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(10), 1279.

Tucker, A., Norton, C., DeMille, S., & Hobson, J. (2016).  The impact of wilderness therapy on physical and emotional health: Utilizing an integrated approach in Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare. Journal of Experiential Education, 39 (1), 15-30.

DeMille, S., Comart, C., & Tucker, A. (2014).  Body composition changes in an Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare program. Ecopsychology, 6(3), 174-182.

Family and OBH

Norton, C.L., Tucker, A.R, Farnham-Stratton, M., Borroel, F., & Pelletier, A. (2019). Family enrichment adventure therapy: A mixed methods study examining the impact of trauma-informed adventure therapy on children and families affected by abuse. Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma, 12(1), 85-95.

Christian, D. D., Perryman, K. L., & Portrie-Bethke, T. L. (2017). Improving the parent–adolescent relationship with adventure-based counseling: An Adlerian perspective. Journal of Child and Adolescent Counseling, 3(1), 44–58.

DeMille, S. M., & Montgomery, M. (2016). Integrating narrative family therapy in an Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare program: A case study. Contemporary Family Therapy, 38, 3–13. 

Liermann, K., & Norton, C.L. (2016). Positive relationship outcomes between parents and adolescent children following therapeutic wilderness program for struggling teens. Contemporary Family Therapy, 38, 14-22.

Liermann, K., & Norton, C.L. (2016). Enhancing family communication: Examining the impact of a therapeutic wilderness program for struggling teens and parents. Contemporary Family Therapy, 38(1), 14-22. 10.1007/s10591-015-9371-5

Tucker, A., Paul, M., Hobson. J., Karoff, M., & Gass, M. (2016). Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare: Its impact on family functioning. Journal of Therapeutic Schools and Programs, 8, 21-40.

Tucker, A.R., Widmer, M., Faddis, T., Randolph, B., & Gass, M. (2016). Family therapy in Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare: Current practices and future possibilities. Contemporary Family Therapy, 38, 32-42. 10.1007/s10591-015-9370-6

Harper, N. & Russell, K. C. (2008). Family involvement and outcome in adolescent wilderness treatment: A mixed-method evaluation. International Journal of Child and Family Welfare, 1, 19-36.

Harper, N., Russell, K. C., Cooley, R. & Cupples, J. (2007). Catherine Freer Wilderness Therapy Expeditions: An exploratory case study of adolescent wilderness therapy, family functioning, and the maintenance of change. Child and Youth Care Forum, 36, 111-129.

Faddis, T.J., & Bettmann, J.E.  (2006). Reflecting team and other innovative family therapy techniques, adapted for outdoor behavioral mental health settings.  Journal of Therapeutic Schools and Programs, 1, 57-69. 

Harper, N., Russell, K. C., & Cooley, R. (2006). An exploratory examination of changes in adolescent and family well-being following a wilderness therapy intervention. Journal of Experiential Education, 29, 393-396.

OBH and Juvenile Justice

Walsh, M. & Russell. K. C. (2011). An exploratory study of a wilderness adventure program for young offenders. Ecopsychology, 2, 211-229.

Gillis, H. L. & Gass, M. A. (2010). Treating juveniles in a sex offender program using adventure-based programming: A matched group design. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 19(1), 20-34.

Gillis, H. L.; Gass, M. & Russell, K. C. (2008). The effectiveness of Project Adventure’s behavior management program for male offenders in residential treatment. Residential Treatment for Children and Youth, 25, 227-247.

Russell, K. C. (2006). Evaluating the effects of the Wendigo Lake Expedition program for young offenders. Journal of Juvenile Justice and Youth Violence, 4, 185-203.

Risk Management in OBH

Gass, M., & Javorski, S. (2013). 10-year incident monitoring trends in Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare: Lessons learned and future directions. Journal of Therapeutic Schools and Programs, 6, 113-129. 

Russell, K. C. & Harper, N. (2006). Incident monitoring in outdoor behavioral healthcare programs: A four-year summary of restraint, runaway, injury, and illness rates. Journal of Therapeutic Schools and Programs, 1, 70-90.

OBH and Transport/Escort Use

Tucker, A., Combs, K. M., Bettman, J., Chang, T., Graham, S., Hoag, M., & Tatum, C. (2018). Longitudinal outcomes for youth transported to wilderness therapy programs. Research on Social Work Practice, 29(4), 438-451.

Tucker, A., Bettmann, J., Norton, C.L., & Comart, C. (2015). The role of transport use in Adolescent wilderness treatment: Its relationship to readiness to change and outcome. Child and Youth Care Forum, 44, 671-686.

Community Based Applications of OBH/Adventure Therapy

Norton, C.L., Tucker, A.R., Pelletier, A., VanKanegan, C., & Boggs, K. (2020) Utilizing adventure therapy to increase hope and well-being among shelter residents. the Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership (Special Issue: A Critical Exploration of Girls’ and Women’s Experiences in Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership), 12(1), 87-101.

VanKanegan, C., Tucker, A.R., McMillion, P., & Gass, M. (2019). Adventure therapy and its impact on the functioning of youth in a community setting. Social Work with Groups, 42(2), 127-141.

Christian, D. D., Brown, C. L., & Portrie-Bethke, T. L. (2019). Group climate and development in adventure therapy: An exploratory study. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 44(1), 25–45.

Karoff, M., Tucker, A.R., Alvarez, M.A., & Kovacs, P. (2017). Infusing a peer to peer support program with adventure therapy for adolescent students with Autism Spectrum Disorder.  Journal for Experiential Education, 40(4), 394-408.

Koperski, H., Tucker, A., Lung, D.M., & Gass, M. (2015). The impact of community based adventure therapy programming on stress and coping skills in adults. Practitioner Scholar: Journal of Counseling and Professional Psychology, 4(1), 1-16.

Norton, C.L., Watt, T., & Penn, A. (2014). Exploring the impact of a wilderness-based positive youth development program for urban youth. Journal of Experiential Education, 37(4), 335-350.

Scheinfeld, D. E., & Buser S. J. (2013). Adventure therapy for men’s groups. In A. Rochlen & F. Rabinowitz (Eds.), Breaking barriers in counseling men: Insights and innovations. Routledge Press.

Tucker, A., Javorski, S., Tracy, J., & Beale, B. (2013). The use of adventure therapy in community-based mental health: Decreases in problem severity among youth clients. Child and Youth Care Forum, 42(2), 155-179.

Tucker, A. R., Sugerman, D., & Zelov, R. (2013). On Belay: Providing connection, support and empowerment to children whose parents have cancer. Journal of Experiential Education, 36(2) 93–105.

Scheinfeld, D. E., Rochlen, A. B., & Buser, S. J. (2011). Adventure therapy: A supplementary group therapy approach for men. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 12(2), 188–194.

Training, Staffing & Supervision

Myrick, L., Wermer-Colan, A., Norton, C.L., & Tucker, A.R. (2021). Understanding trauma-related distress among wilderness therapy field staff. Journal of Therapeutic Schools and Programs, 13, 69-101.

Norton, C.L., Tucker, A., & Bandoroff, S. (2020). Psychological risk management: Mental health prevention and response strategies in outdoor settings. In N. Harper & W. Dobud (Eds.), Outdoor Therapies (pp. 42-53). Routledge Press.

Norton, C.L., Schultz, M., Benton, A., Boden-McGill, C. & Kiosoglous, C. (in press). Outdoor adventure-based group work to promote coping and resilience among child welfare workers. In T. J. Carter, C. J. Boden-McGill, & K. Peno, (Eds). Transformative Learning in Professional Learning Contexts: Building Resilient Professional Identities for Work-based Practice.

Christian, D. D., & Perryman, K. L. (2018). Adventures in supervision: Implications for supervision of adventure based counseling. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 13(1), 19–30.

Karoff, M., Norton, C.L., Tucker, A.T., Gass, M., & Foerster, E. (2019). A qualitative gender analysis of women field guides’ experiences in Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare: A feminist social work perspective. Affilia: Journal of Women in Social Work, 34(1), 48-64.

Avery, M.E., Norton, C. L., & Tucker, A.R. (2018). Blazing a trail…together: The need for mentoring and collaboration among women in outdoor leadership. In T. Gray & D. Mitten (Ed.), The Palgrave Macmillan International Handbook of Women and Outdoor Learning (pp. 801-813). Palgrave Macmillan.

Tucker, A. R., & Norton, C.L. (2013). The use of adventure therapy techniques by clinical social workers: Implications for practice and training. Clinical Social Work Journal, 41, 333–343.

Norton, C.L. (2012). Supervision in adventure therapy: Building something with that. In M. Gass, H.L. Gillis, & K.C. Russell (Eds.), Adventure therapy. New York: Routledge.

Marchand, G. & Russell, K. C. (2011). Initial training of field instructors in Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare programs. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, 3, 9-12.

Gass, M. A. & Gillis, H. L. (2010). ENHANCES: Adventure therapy supervision. Journal of Experiential Education, 33(1), 72-89.

Norton, C. L., & Tucker, A. R. (2010). New heights: Adventure-based group work in social work education & practice. Groupwork, 20(2), 24-44.

Marchand, G. Russell, K. C. & Cross, R. (2009). An empirical examination of outdoor behavioral healthcare field instructor job related stress and retention. Journal of Experiential Education, 31, 359-375.

Veterans and the Outdoors

Bettmann, J.E. & Prince, K.C., Ganesh, K., Rugo, K.F., Bryan. A.O., Bryan, C.J., Rozek, D.C., & Leifker, F.R. (in press). The effect of time outdoors on veterans receiving treatment for PTSD. Journal of Clinical Psychology.

Leonard, A., Hoellger, L., Bettmann, J.E., Kouris, G., & Ganesh, K. (2021). Sierra Club Military Outdoors: A nature-based intervention for female veterans. In D.L. Dustin, K.S. Bricker, D.A. Tysor, & M.T.J. Brownlee (Eds.), Outdoor Recreation and Our Military Family: Pathways to Recovery. Sagamore Venture.

Bettmann, J.E., Anstadt, G., & Kolaski, A.Z. (2020). Therapeutic adventure for military veterans with mental illness: A conceptual argument. Ecopsychology, 12(4), 1-7.

Bettmann, J.E., Scheinfeld, D., Prince, K., Garland, E.L, & Ovrom, K. V. (2018). Changes in psychiatric symptoms and psychological processes among veterans participating in a therapeutic adventure program. Psychological Services, 16(4), 525-534.

Scheinfeld, D. E., Rochlen, A. B., & Russell, M. L. (2017). The impact of outward bound programming on psychosocial functioning for male military veterans. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 18(4), 400–408.

Additional Publications

Dobud, W. W., & Harper, N. J. (2018). Of dodo birds and common factors: A scoping review of direct comparison trials in adventure. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 31, 16-24.

Gray, T., Norton, C.L., Breault-Hood, J., Christie, B., & Taylor, N. (2018) Curating a public self: Exploring social media images of women in the outdoors. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership (JOREL) 10(2), 153-170.

Newman, T., Kim, M., Tucker, A., & Alvarez, A. (2018). Learning through the adventure of youth sport. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 23(3), 280-293.

Gass, M., Foden, E., & Tucker, A.R. (2017). Program evaluation for health and human service programs: How to tell the right story successfully. In J. D. Christenson & A. N. Merritts (Eds). Family therapy with adolescents in residential settings: Intervention and research (pp. 425-441). New York: Springer.

Gillis Jr, H. L., Speelman, E., Linville, N., Bailey, E., Kalle, A., Oglesbee, N., ... & Jensen, J. (2016). Meta analysis of treatment outcomes measured by the Y-OQ and Y-OQ-SR comparing wilderness and non-wilderness treatment programs. Child & Youth Care Forum45(6), 851-863.

Gillis, H.L., Kivlighan, D. M., & Russell, K.C. (2016). Between-client and within-client engagement and outcome in a residential wilderness treatment group: An actor partner interdependence analysis. Psychotherapy, 53(4), 413–423.

Behrens, E. (2016).  Preface:  A Tipping point for the Journal of Therapeutic Schools and Programs, Journal of Therapeutic Schools and Programs, 8, 4-5. 

Behrens, E. (2015).  Preface:  A case for clinical case studies. Journal of Therapeutic Schools and Programs, 7, 5-7. 

Norton, C.L., Wisner, B., Krugh, M., Penn, A. (2014). Helping youth transition into an alternative residential school setting: Exploring the effects of a wilderness orientation program on youth purpose and identity complexity. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 31(5), 475-493.

Tucker, A. R., Zelov, R., & Young, M. (2011). Four years along: Emerging traits of programs in the NATSAP Practice Research Network (PRN). Journal of Therapeutic Schools and Programs, 5(1), 10-28.

Norton, C.L. & Hsieh, C. (2011). Cultural bridging through shared adventure: Cross cultural perspectives in adventure therapy. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 11(2), 173-188.

Tucker, A. R., & Rheingold, A. (2010). Enhancing fidelity in adventure education and adventure therapy. Journal of Experiential Education, 33(3), 258-273.

Russell, K. C. & Gillis, H. L. (2010). Experiential therapy in the mental health treatment of adolescents. Journal of Therapeutic Schools and Programs, 4, 47-79.

Russell, K. C. (2008). Adolescent substance-use treatment: Service delivery, research on effectiveness, and emerging treatment alternatives. Journal of Groups in Addiction & Recovery, 2(2-4), 68-96.

Gillis, H L. & Speelman. E.(2008). Are Challenge (Ropes) Courses an Effective Tool? A Meta-Analysis. The Journal of Experiential Education, 31(2), 111-135.

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